Application Of PLGA In Biomedical Field

Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) referred to as PLGA, is a light yellow or colorless substance, is a non-functional side group copolymer of lactic acid and glycolic acid polymerization, is an important biomedical polymer material. It has the advantages of polylactic acid (PLA) and polylglycolic acid (PGA), and has good biocompatibility and degradability. PLGA has been applied in the field of bioengineering.

PLGA is a random copolymer, amorphous polymer, widely used in surgical sutures, anti-adhesion membranes, tissue engineering scaffolds. Poly (lactate-glycolic acid), PLGA is a non-functional side group copolymer of lactic acid and glycolic acid, which is an important biomedical polymer material.

Compared with PLA, the polymer degradation time can be controlled according to the different GA content, and the material is soft and flexible. Different monomer ratios can produce different types of PLGA, for example: PLGA 75:25 indicates that the polymer is composed of 75% lactic acid and 25% glycolic acid. The degradation degree of PLGA varies with the monomer ratio, and the higher the proportion of ethyl ester, the easier the degradation is. White powder dissolves faster.

The preparation of PLGA is mostly by open ring polymerization

In the common ring-opening polymerization, glycolic acid and lactic acid are dehydrated and cyclized respectively to synthesize glycolate and lactil monomers. PLGA random copolymer was obtained by ring-opening polymerization. The reaction formula of Gan polymerization into random commences is shown in the figure below. The resulting PLGA is generally considered a random copolymer (Ran-PLGA), whose composition can be controlled with different feed ratios and is therefore more common.

At present, PLGA is limited by its price and other factors, and it is mainly used in biomedical engineering fields, such as: drug controlled release system; PLGA has been applied to drug microspheres because of its good processing and controlled release properties.

Tissue engineering and bone internal fixation materials: PLGA is one of the absorbable materials, which is non-toxic in the body, has good biological properties, does not cause inflammation in surrounding tissues, has no rejection reaction, and can be biodegradable, can participate in the carbohydrate metabolism cycle in the human body, without residue. Medical sutures: PLGA can be used as surgical sutures that, due to their biodegradability, automatically degrade and absorb after wound healing without the need for a second surgery.

From being used to prevent the oxidation of vitamins to being recognized as biocompatible and biodegradable materials for drug delivery, it took several decades, PLGA produced by Unilong is currently used in the production of drug slow-release microspheres, bone repair materials, bone fixation materials, stent materials, wound sutures, skin grafts, oral implants, artificial catheters, etc. Nano-capsules, microspheres, gels and other injectables prepared with PLGA as carrier materials can protect drugs, increase drug solubility and improve drug bioavailability, and achieve long-term sustained release and controlled release, which has broad development prospects.

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